November 9, 2010 
 
TODD JAYNES INVITED TO SPEAK AT THE FIRST AUSTRALIAN FUNCTIONAL HOOF CONFERENCE 
 
Todd Jaynes, ESA Instructor and Public Education Clinician has been invited to speak at the first Functional Hoof Conference in Melbourne, Australia in February of 2011.  Cindy Sullivan, ESA co-founder and Director of Academic Affairs was invited also, but was unable to attend due to prior committments.  
 
The conference will feature many of the top names in the barefoot world and should be an excellent educational experience.  Other speakers include: 
 
  Professor Robert Bowker, VMD PhD 
  Professor Chris Pollitt, BVSc PhD 
  Kerry Ridgway, DVM 
  Debra Taylor, DVM MS DACVIM 
  Carol Layton, Bsc MEd 
  Alison Macintosh, BVSc 
  Duncan McLaughlin 
  Karen Chaton 
  Simon Collins, PhD BSc (Hons) 
  Garrett Ford 
  Brian Hampson 
  Carole Herder 
 
ESA is also a sponsor of the event, and we look forward to Todd representing the ESA and the USA at this important event.  For more information go to 
http://www.thefunctionalhoof.com/ 
 
___________________________________ 
 
 
GET MORE INFORMATION ON OUR GREAT ADVISORY PANEL 
 
 
Pete Ramey - USA - http://www.hoofrehab.com 
Hoof Care Clinician  
Author of "Making Natural Hoof Care Work for You"  
DVD series – Under The Horse 
DVD series – That’s My Horse 
DVD – Tools of the Trade 
 
Dr. Robert Cook - USA -http://www.bitlessbridle.com 
FRCVS, PhD  
Developed The Bitless Bridle  
Co-Author of  “Metal in the Mouth. The Abusive Effects of Bitted Bridles”   
 
Andy Beck - New Zealand - http://www.equine-behavior.com 
Equine Ethologist  
Author of Equine Behavior 
Director of the White Horse Equine Ethology Project 
International Editor Natural Horse Planet / Planet du Cheval au Natural   
 
Lydia Nevzorova - Russia - http://www.hauteecole.ru 
Founder of Nevzorov Haute Ecole 
Equine rights activist 
Editor of NHE Equine Anthology Magazine 
 
Dr. Thomas Teskey - USA 
Doctor of Veterinary Medicine 
Barefoot advocate and author of numerous articles on subject 
 
Dr. Joseph Thomas - USA - http://www.forloveofthehorse.com 
Clinical Director, Research and Development and Co-Founder - For Love of the Horse 
Contemporary Chinese Herbalism  
Laminitis Studies 
 
Kathryn Watts - USA - http://www.safergrass.org 
Founder and Director of Safer Grass – a research facility studying the effects of carbohydrates and sugars in grasses. 
 
Dr. Eleanor Kellon - USA - http://www.drkellon.com 
Veterinary Advisory Board for Smart Pak Equine  
Veterinary Editor for Horse Journal and John Lyons Perfect Horse  
Co-creator of the online Equine Cushings and Insulin Resistance group 
 
Spencer LaFlure - USA - http://www.advancedwholehorsedentistry.com 
Director - Advanced Whole Horse Dentistry  
DVD – Introduction to Equine Dentistry 
 
Carol Brett and Lesley Taylor – United Kingdom - http://www.balanceinternational.com 
Co-Founders of BALANCE Organisation 
Developers of BALANCE Saddles 
Co-Authors of "Straight Forward Riding"  
 
Dr. Elizabeth Schrader - USA 
Certified Animal Chiropractor  
Doctor of Chiropractic  
 
Garrett Ford - USA - http://www.easycareinc.com 
President, EasyCare, Inc.  
Manufacturer of Easy Boot,  Boa Boot, Epic Boots, Bare Boots and more  
 
____________________________________ 
 
 
September 21, 2010 
 
DR. JANE GOODALL JOINS THE ESA AS OUR GOODWILL AMBASSADOR 
 
We are extremely proud and humbled to announce that Jane Goodall, PhD, DBE, Founder – The Jane Goodall Institute and United Nations Messenger of Peace, has honored us by joining the Equine Sciences Academy as our Goodwill Ambassador.  
 
 
Dr. Goodall is considered to be the world's foremost expert on chimpanzees, and has worked extensively on conservation and animal welfare issues around the globe.  In addition, in 1991 Dr. Goodall started Jane Goodall’s Roots & Shoots, a global environmental and humanitarian program for youth. 
 
We deeply appreciate Dr. Goodall’s support of our mission and goal.  As advocates for domestic horses, we strive to raise awareness and educate both horse owners and equine professionals about their innate needs for physical, emotional and spiritual health and well being.  The ESA challenges many, if not most accepted conventional horse management practices and in doing so hopes to change the way that many think about and care for these amazing animals.    
 
We do not believe horses exist solely to serve mankind, but that the partnership between human and horse is a privilege and a trust that must not be violated.  To that end ESA teaches and promotes good stewardship both in principle and in practice. 
 
Please join us in welcoming Dr. Goodall.  For more information about the Jane Goodall Institute please visit http://www.janegoodall.org/. 
 
____________________________________ 
 
 
August 31, 2010 
 
HORSE'S HOOF MAGAZINE - FREE DOWNLOAD 
 
The Horse's Hoof Magazine is offering a free download of their Summer 2009 issue.  For those who would like to see what the magazine is all about, it is highly recommended. 
http://www.thehorseshoof.com/ 
 
 
ESA STUDENTS FROM AROUND THE GLOBE 
 
The Academy is very proud to welcome our students from around the world.  We now have students from: 
 
AUSTRALIA 
CANADA 
CZECH REPUBLIC 
ENGLAND 
FINLAND 
SOUTH AFRICA 
SWITZERLAND 
UNITED KINGDOM 
UNITED STATES 
 
 
LIST OF AUDIT CLASSES AVAILABLE TO THE PUBLIC 
 
Foundations of Natural Hoof Care  
Understanding Farrier Science and practices  
Equine Anatomy -  Distal Limb  
Equine Behavior  
Critical Thinking 
Equine Anatomy - Digestive System / Internal Organs  
Fundamentals of Equine Nutrition  
Fundamentals of Equine Dentistry  
Understanding Veterinary Science and practices  
Complementary Equine Health Care - Part 1 
Equine Anatomy - Musculoskeletal   
Complementary Equine Health Care - Part 2  
Equine Bio-mechanics  
The Effects of Environment on Equine Health  
Business Basics 
 
For more information 
http://www.equinesciencesacademy.com/esa_00002f.htm 
 
____________________________________ 
 
 
August 6, 2010 
 
www.equinesciencesacademy.com 
 
 
We congratulate the following recipients of the 2010 ESA Scholarships. 
 
Armed Services  -  Shannon Whitaker  -  Canada 
 
Distinction  -  Lyndsey Ridley  -  UK 
 
Excellence  -  Milner Moss  -  South Africa  
 
Community Service  -  Julie Murray  -  USA 
 
Community Service  -  Suzanne Warsinsky  -  USA 
 
Merit  -  Christina Stevenson  -  Canada 
 
As usual we had many excellent applications and it was a very difficult decision.  We know they will make us proud, be great ambassadors for the Academy and help improve the lives of horses the world over. 
 
****************************************************** 
 
We have just completed the first ESA Orientation week in the UK which was a great success.  A page on the website with pictures is coming soon. 
 
******************************************************* 
 
Don’t forget about the new discounts !!!! 
 
******************************************************* 
 
With the extreme heat in parts of the country, please make sure your animals have adequate shelter and shade and plenty of clean, fresh water to drink at all times. 
 
____________________________________ 
 
 
July 6, 2010 
 
www.equinesciencesacademy.com 
 
 
Reminder — Scholarship Applications are due July 15 for 2010. 
 
 
We now have 15 classes available for audit.  Anyone can audit a class, you do not have to be enrolled in the Academy.  The 20% Equinomic Stimulus discount applies to all Audit classes.  Cost after discount is $160. 
 
Classes available for Audit are: 
 
1107     Foundations of Natural Hoof Care  
1207     Understanding Farrier Science and practices  
1307     Equine Anatomy -  Distal Limb  
1507     Equine Behavior  
1607     Critical Thinking  
 
2107     Equine Anatomy - Digestive System / Internal Organs  
2207     Fundamentals of Equine Nutrition  
2307     Fundamentals of Equine Dentistry  
2407     Understanding Veterinary Science and practices  
2507     Complementary Equine Health Care - Part 1  
 
3107     Equine Anatomy - Musculoskeletal   
3207     Complementary Equine Health Care - Part 2  
3307     Equine Bio-mechanics  
3407     The Effects of Environment on Equine Health  
3507     Business Basics  
 
Please let us know if you have any questions. 
 
 
When you visit the website please periodically refresh your pages as your browser may store old pages. 
 
____________________________________ 
 
 
 
June 22, 2010 
 
www.equinesciencesacademy.com 
 
 
Reminder — Scholarship Applications are due July 15 for 2010. 
 
**************************************************************************************** 
 
We have some exciting news…. 
 
These are difficult times.  In an effort to help students continue their training we are pleased to offer the following additional Incentive discounts.   
 
These discounts are in addition to the Equinomic Stimulus discounts.  Students taking advantage of all discounts can save almost 50% on class fees.  See examples below. 
 
We hope that this will help those who are looking to supplement their current income, or start a new career doing something they love, in the field of natural horse/hoof care  
 
Overview 
 
There are two Student Incentive discounts available, one for completing a full term in 4 months OR one for completing a full term in 6 months.  Any student completing all six classes in one term within 4 months is eligible for an additional 20% off the next term when paid in full within 30 days of completion of the previous term.   Any student completing all six classes in one term within 6 months is eligible for an additional 10% off the next term when paid in full within 30 days of completion of the previous term. Incentive discounts apply to terms two and three only.   
 
For those who do not complete the classes in these time frames there is no penalty, but they are not eligible for the additional discount. 
 
Please see the requirements for each outlined below. ** 
 
Student Incentive - A 
 
Student must complete all classes in one term within four months of registering to be eligible for discount for the next term. ** 
 
Student must sign up for the full term in advance (not class by class)** 
 
Student must register for the next full term within 30 days of taking the last final of the previous term. 
 
It is the student's responsibility to request the additional discount and give the date of registration and the first class taken in the previous term. 
 
Example of savings 
 
Regular class by class fees - $200 x 6 classes = $1,200 total per term 
 
$200 discount for paying for full term in advance - $1,000 total per term 
 
20% Equinomic Stimulus discount - $800 total per term 
 
20% Student Incentive A - $640 total per term 
 
 
Student Incentive - B 
 
Student must complete all classes in one term within six months of registering to be eligible for discount for the next term. ** 
 
Student must sign up for the full term in advance (not class by class)** 
 
Student must register for the next full term within 30 days of taking the last final of the previous term. 
 
It is the student's responsibility to request the addtional discount and give the date of registration and the first class taken in the previous term. 
 
Example of savings 
 
Regular class by class fees - $200 x 6 classes = $1,200 total per term 
 
$200 discount for paying for full term in advance - $1,000 total per term 
 
20% Equinomic Stimulus discount - $800 total per term 
 
20% Student Incentive A - $720 total per term 
 
For those who do not complete the classes in these time frames there is no penalty, but they are not eligible for the additional discount. 
 
 
**  The start date for this program is July 1, 2010.  Students who are currently enrolled will be allowed one month to complete each class in the current term for which they have not already taken the final.  e.g. if you have taken 3 finals in first term, you will have 3 months to complete the other 3 classes in order to be eligible for the A discount for second term.   If you have taken 1 final, you will have 5 months to complete the other 5 classes etc. 
 
____________________________________ 
 
 
January 7, 2010 
 
www.equinesciencesacademy.com 
HAPPY NEW YEAR — we hope 2010 will be a wonderful year for you all. 
***************************************** 
Dr. Robert Cook, who developed the Bitless Bridle, and is a member of the ESA Advisory Panel has written an article for The Natural Horse. 
Natural Horse Magazine Volume 12, Issue 1 - Jan/Feb 2010 - Equissentials section 
An Apology to the Horse After 88 Years of Pain: an interview with Robert Cook, FRCVS, PhD 
 
Congratulations to the Royal Dutch Equestrian Federation for being the first national federation to permit bitless dressage. In the next few weeks, the USEF has the opportunity to pass a similar rule and give further impetus to the reform. Figure 1 depicts the intra-oral devices that have been mandated by the FEI since 1921 for advanced dressage competitions. Provision of a humane option in the Netherlands sets an enlightened example for other federations to follow. 
Visit http://www.bitlessbridle.com/ApologyToTheHorse.pdf for the complete article 
The USEF has been petitioned to follow suit.  If you would like to urge the USEF to change the rules and allow bitless competitors (it is currently forbidden) you can email them at 
lrawls@usef.org 
 
They are due to make a decision in the next few days, so time is of the essence. 
 
***************************************** 
 
We will be continuing the Equinomic Stimulus package through 2010 !!!  This offers a 20% discount on all classes and workshops. 
 
****************************************** 
The first Orientation week in the UK, Friday 12th - Monday 15th.  We will take place in March will have more details on the website soon.   
 
****************************************** 
 
Remember your animals need extra care and attention in the cold.!!!!! 
 
____________________________________ 
 
December 1, 2009 
 
The Equine Sciences Academy is thrilled to announce that Dr. Joseph Thomas will be joining the esteemed group of equine professionals on our Advisory Panel. 
Joseph Thomas, Ph.D. has been a practitioner, teacher, lecturer, and consultant in Chinese medicine with a focus on Internal Medicine, for more than twenty-five years.  Between 1993 and 1998 Dr. Thomas had the distinct honor of being chosen to apprentice with Leon Hammer, MD, one of the world’s foremost experts in both diagnostics and Chinese herbalism. Added to this training was his earlier work as a Massachusetts Institute of Technology [MIT] scientist in medical research. Dr. Thomas’ research focus and inherent ability to think as a scientist united with his unique training and work in Chinese medicine is the foundation of his current expertise in herbal formulation.  
Dr. Thomas’ philosophy and work sync perfectly with the ESA “Whole Horse” approach.  He has been researching laminitis for eight years and written some exceptional articles on his findings.   
Visit http://www.forloveofthehorse.com/index.php for more information 
 
***************************************** 
 
The ESA was featured in an article in the Nevzorov Equine Anthology Vol. II magazine.  We thank them for their continued support of the Academy.  For more information go to 
http://hauteecole.ru/en/anthology.php?sid=0&id=763 
 
 
***************************************** 
 
We will be continuing the Equinomic Stimulus package through 2010 !!!  This offers a 20% discount on all classes and workshops. 
 
****************************************** 
The November Orientation Week was a great success.  The students were exceptional and the weather was amazing.  As always there were interesting findings in the cadaver trimming and dissections.  We were also joined by Jarod Eddy, DVM on one of the trim days which was a real treat.  There will be a page on the website soon.  The next O week will be in the Spring and dates will be announced soon. 
 
****************************************** 
 
 
We hope you all had a wonderful Thanksgiving. 
 
Sincerely 
 
The Equine Sciences Team 
 
____________________________________ 
 
 
August 21, 2009 
 
We are proud to announce the 2009 ESA Scholarship recipients.  We had excellent applications, and the decisions were difficult, but congratulations to the following: 
ESA Armed Services Scholarship  -  Don Lykins   
ESA Distinction Scholarship  -  Melissa Wardwell  
ESA Excellence Scholarship  -  Holli Gregory   
ESA Transitions Scholarship  -  Aubree Merritt   
ESA Community Service Scholarship  -  Heidi Lindner   
ESA Merit Scholarship  -  Leah Case 
We know they will make us proud, and be great ambassadors for the Academy, and advocates for the horse. 
***************************************** 
 
The next Orientation Week will be November 3 — 7 in Georgia.  There is a 20% discount until the end of the year on all ESA fees 
 
The next Orientation Week will be November 3 — 7 in Georgia.  There is a 20% discount until the end of the year on all ESA fees 
 
____________________________________ 
 
 
June 23, 2009 
 
This summer the ESA will launch its Equine Sciences Degree program.  Whatever your area of interest in working in the equine industry, this program is designed to give you a thorough, fundamental understanding of all the key aspects of horse husbandry in today's world, and the tools to apply what you have learned to equine care and management.  
 
This knowledge base is an indispensable foundation as success in any given discipline requires a broad understanding of all the factors in the horse’s life and their implications and effects. This can only be gained through study of the "Whole Horse."  
 
The program will encompass three terms of six online courses each, and the Orientation week, but does not require Hoof Care Certification.  The classes will provide a thorough understanding of hoof care, but students will not be required to go through practical training. 
 
We believe that Equine Sciences, as a field of study, should be based on the horse’s innate requirements for health, happiness and soundness, as opposed to many of the conventional practices now taught in most schools. We look forward to the time when this becomes the "typical equine sciences degree program."  
 
***************************************** 
 
The May Orientation Week was a great success.  We had a terrific group of new students and the new Georgia location and five day format worked really well.  The next O week will be at the beginning of November. 
 
****************************************** 
 
Just a reminder that the deadline for ESA 2009 scholarships is July 15.  See the website for more details.  Also a reminder that our Equinomic Stimulus package is still in effect for 2009 — 20% discount on all classes and workshops. 
 
****************************************** 
 
Yvonne Welz has posted a free copy of The Horse’s Hoof PDF issue #30 - free for everyone to download and see what the magazine is like.  There is also a subscription sale for June.  All the info is right at the top of the website  www.thehorseshoof.com 
 
____________________________________ 
 
 
April 14, 2009 
 
Just a reminder that we are extending our Equinomic Stimulus Package through 2009.  Please go to 
http://www.equinesciencesacademy.com/esa_00003a.htm 
for more details. 
 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
 
The next Orientation Week will be May 19 - 23, 2009 in Georgia.  Please go to  
http://www.equinesciencesacademy.com/esa_000016.htm 
for more details. 
 
Also a reminder that this workshop is open to the public.  Please contact us at info@equinesciencesacademy.com if you are interested in attending and are not an enrolled student. 
 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
 
Applications are now being taken for our ESA International program in the UK.  Students from the UK and Europe will be able to complete the online portion of the program as usual, and complete all practical training in the UK.  Go to the homepage of the website for more information. 
 
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
 
The deadline for scholarship applications is July 15th, 2009. 
 
____________________________________ 
 
 
 
January 31, 2009 
 
Happy New Year !!  We hope you all had a great holiday season. 
 
We have a lot of exciting news to start 2009. 
 
We are pleased to announce that we will be extending our Equinomic Stimulus Package through 2009.  Please go to 
http://www.equinesciencesacademy.com/esa_00003a.htm 
for more details. 
………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 
 
The next Orientation Week will be May 19 - 23, 2009 in Georgia.  More details will be available on the website in the near future. 
 
………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 
 
We are proud to announce that Spencer LaFlure has joined the esteemed group of equine professionals on our Advisory Panel.  Mr. LaFlure holds advanced certification in Natural Balance Dentistry from Advanced Whole Horse Dentistry Learning Center. He now practices extensively throughout the United States.  For more information, please visit the website 
 
http://www.equinesciencesacademy.com/esa_00000d.htm  
 
………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 
 
The ESA will be opening the first full certification branch of ESA International in the UK starting in 2009.  Students from the UK and Europe will be able to complete the online portion of the program as usual, and complete all practical training in the UK.  A full outline of the program and more details will be posted on the website in the coming months. 
 
………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 
 
We received this press release from Dr. Cook, one of our Advisory Panel members - very exciting news. 
 
A SIMPLE ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM 
TO REDUCE ACCIDENTS IN EQUESTRIAN SPORT 
 
On 31 October 2008, during the annual conference of the Certified Horsemanship Association held at the Kentucky Horse Park, Dr. Robert Cook, a veterinary researcher, gave a demonstration of relevance to the improvement of welfare and safety for horses and humans. 
 
The demonstration took the form of a scientific experiment in front of witnesses. Four volunteers, all of whom were CHA certified riding instructors, rode four horses that were offered by owners for the purpose.  A four-minute, exercise test was first completed using a bitted bridle (jointed snaffle).  Immediately afterwards, the same rider/horse partnership repeated the test using the BitlessBridle.  Prior to the demonstration, none of the horses had ever been ridden in a crossunder bitless bridle. The horses’ behavior and performance were evaluated and a videotape recording supplemented the ‘laboratory notebook.’ 
 
An independent judge scored the tests on a scale from one to ten, for each of the 27 phases of the test. The average score when bitted was 37% and, when bitless, 64%. It was a revelation for the horse’s owners, riders and spectators that such a significant improvement in performance could be achieved in four minutes by removing the bit and replacing it with a painless method of communication.  The experiment also demonstrated that the transition from bitted to bitless was instantaneous.  
 
The results provide further evidence of the need for rule change proposals to be submitted in order that the crossunder bitless bridle, a safer and more humane method of communication than the bit, is made available as an option for competition.  In the past ten years, the crossunder bitless bridle has been thoroughly tested on horses of all types, temperaments and stages of schooling; by riders of all ages and ability; in nearly every discipline; and under diverse conditions, worldwide.  The scientific, humanitarian and practical equestrian reasons for providing such an option are compelling.  The option should not be denied on the grounds of tradition.  The bit is a Bronze Age invention.  Horsemen now have a better way to communicate with their horse’s head.  Use of the bit triggers over 100 negative behaviors and causes 40 different diseases. 
 
Members of pony clubs, national equine federations, the international equine federation (FEI), and administrators of racing are urged to submit the necessary rule change proposals in order that the rules, for all disciplines, embrace this historic advance in welfare and safety for horse and rider.  The Royal Dutch Equestrian Federation (KNHS) has led the way by approving the crossunder bitless bridle for dressage and for certain driving competitions.  The South African National Equine Federation (SANEF) launches a year’s trial for separate bitless dressage competitions, starting in 2009.  Much suffering, many accidents and a host of diseases could be avoided if other federations would follow their example and introduce this simple administrative reform. 
Committee officials now have a chance. 
A stroke of the pen will make horses dance. 
 
For additional evidence visit www.bitlessbridle.com or contact Robert Cook FRCVS, PhD, Professor of Surgery Emeritus, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, Massachusetts, USA; Chairman, BitlessBridle Inc.  Present address: 206 Birch Run Road, Chestertown, MD 21620 USA 
Email: drcook@bitlessbridle.com  Telephone: (443) 282 0472 
re bitless bridles in dressage 
 
………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 
 
WINTER AND HORSES - Please read 
 
College of Veterinary Medicine 
 
Merle Richmond, Coordinator 
Oakland Equestrian Coalition 
  
Michigan State University 
January 14, 2009 
Contact: Judy Lessard 
CVM Publications and Media Relations 
(517) 355-0001 
 
Attention Horse Owners! 
 
The 2008-2009 winter in Michigan has been unusually cold with temperatures well below freezing for many days in a row.  This extreme cold weather can be particularly dangerous to animals that live outdoors and the MSU Veterinary Teaching Hospital is reporting an increase in the number of animals presenting with starvation and exposure-related problems.   
 
During the winter it is imperative that you monitor your horse’s body weight by putting your hand on them frequently!  Furry coats make visual assessment of body condition impossible - the ONLY way you can assess your animals condition is by touch.   
 
As temperatures continue to remain unusually cold, it is important to remember that your animals require MORE calories to maintain body temperature and body weight.  Once an animal’s body condition has deteriorated it may no longer be strong enough to eat enough food to survive.   
 
Remember older animals with poor dentition an d young animals may require more feed, and be fed separately from other horses to ensure adequate intake. 
Points to remember! 
 
1.       The average inactive horse needs to eat 1.5 to 2 percent of its body weight in food per day to just maintain weight without any other energy demands.  In the winter, the amount needed will increase as the demand to keep warm will increase the amount of energy the horse expends.  This means that the average 1,000-pound horse in good condition needs at least 20 pounds of hay during normal weather and may need as much as 35 to 40 pounds of hay and grain products during cold weather.  If your horse is considered underweight, the amount of feed needs to be calculated based on his ideal weight, NOT his current weight.  While hay diets are ideal, certain animals will require grain, complete feeds or fat supplements to maintain body weight. 
 
2.        Separate young, old or debilitated horses as the dominant horse will frequently eat most of the food provided, resulting in some horses being healthy and others facing malnutrition. 
 
3.        Blankets and shelters will help decrease energy demands.  However, remember a blanket hides the body condition so it is important to place your hands under the blanket and remove it at least every week or so to assess body condition. 
 
4.       Old horses with poor dentition (teeth) may require complete pelleted feeds that are easily broken down, as they may be unable to adequately chew fiber (ha y). For the average horse that should weigh about 1000-pounds, at least one-third of a fifty-pound bag needs to be fed daily just to maintain the body weight, and more will be needed if severe energy demands are present. 
 
5.       Water intake is also very important during the winter.  Many horses will suffer from impaction colics due to inadequate water intake.  Older horses may require the water to not only be frost free, but warmed due to older horses having sensitive teeth. 
 
6.       Remember, during extremely cold weather, to provide extra (free choice) hay, as this will generate more energy and comfort than just increasing the grain (concentrate) portion of the diet.  Just the physical aspect of moving and eating will make the horse more=2 0comfortable.  The hay fermenting in the large intestinal tract will generate heat and finally, the horse will utilize the calories absorbed from the feed. 
 
Body condition score- The body condition scoring (BCS) system is based on a 1 through 9 scale and is designed to assess a horse’s overall condition.  Horses with a BCS less than a 4 are at increased risk of hypothermia and starvation, especially when the weather conditions cause an increase in energy demands just to maintain weight.  If an individual is already thinner than desired (BCS < 4), they will not have adequate body mass (fat) to help with insulation from the cold or provide a supply of energy when the diet is lacking and demands are higher than expected.    
 
To determine your horse’s BCS you must touch your horse, especially in the winter, as winter hair hides a horse’s true BCS, often until it is too late to successfully correct the weight loss.  Feel over the ribs, neck, shoulder  area, mid-spine, hips and tail head.  If your horse’s ribs over the widest part of the barrel are easily felt with little or no tissue between the skin and ribs, the BCS is below 4. This horse is suffering from malnutrition and is at a high risk of hypothermia w hen the temperature drops, particularly if the wind chill is high and little to no shelter is available. 
For more information on body condition and feeding horses during the winter, please contact your veterinarian.  The website www.extension.org is also a very good site to visit for information on feeding, care and body condition scoring. 
 
Dr. Judy Marteniuk, 
Equine Medicine and Extension Veterinarian 
Veterinary Teaching Hospital 
Michigan State University 
 and 
Dr. Elizabeth Carr 
Equine Medicine and Critcal Care Clinician 
Veterinary Teaching Hospital 
Michigan State University 
Wishing you all a very good start to the New Year. 
Sincerely 
 
The Equine Sciences Team 
 
____________________________________